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Certified Organic Lentinula Edodes

Known as Shiitake Mushroom. Uses

Lentinan is used widely in Japan and China as an adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy. It is also used for upregulating the immune system;

shiitake mushrooms offer a unique variety of phytonutrients, including their well-known beta-glucan polysaccharides (especially lentinan and laminarin). A cholesterol-lowering nutrient called eritadenine (or lentinacin) is found in shiitake, as well as the recently discovered amino acid-like nutrient, ergothioneine. Shiitake mushrooms also offer a wide variety of conventional nutrients. They are an excellent source of copper, pantothenic acid, and selenium. They are a very good source of vitamin B2 and zinc. Additionally they are a good source of manganese, vitamin B6, niacin, choline, dietary fiber, vitamin D, and folate.

Shiitake’s flavour is 4 to 10 times more intense than that of ordinary button mushroom. It is also fleshy and is rich in nutrients. It contains proteins (18%), potassium, niacin, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and B vitamins.

Johann Bruhn, Ph.D., Research Associate Professor, Division of

Plant Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia & Michelle Hall, Senior Information Specialist, Center for Agroforestry, University of Missouri-Columbia in 2008 updated their elaborate article on the Shiitake mushroom, describing it from the forest to the table. They even give recipes that go well with the mushroom in a very simplified setting.

They indicated that the mushroom is low in sodium, low in glucose and is a rich source of fibre. Hence, Shiitake is ideal for diabetics and other invalids. In their writings,”Influence of shiitake (Lentinusedodes) on human serum cholesterol” they recommend Shiitake for lowering serum cholesterol.

In Japan, Shiitake has been used as a natural treatment of cancer because of its complex carbohydrate, Lentinan. It is also a source of selenium, an antioxidant that is said to prevent cancer. According to The National Cancer Institute website, the institute has been using selenium in the hope of coming up with a cure to cancer. However until then why don’t you get a head start and reduce your chances of contracting cancer.

The mushroom is credited with lowering serum cholesterol levels by 12% through eritadenine. Eritadenine is a compound contained in the mushroom.

Shiitake’s healing properties are also reflected in its anti-viral strengths. It is said that once metabolised, the glucan based compound therein is able to

fight the influenza virus, bacterial infection, and other infectious elements like cancerous cells. The Japanese pharmaceutical company, Ajinomoto, is already using Lentinan from Shiitake mushrooms to treat stomach cancers. Other countries are also using it as injectable medication to fight cancer.

The City of Hope National Medical Center is conducting further research to determine if Lentinan from the Shiitake mushroom is capable of preventing lung cancer. Research shows that Lentinan has strong anti-tumour properties and is already being used to fight gastric cancer. In some other areas, it is being tried as a cure for Candida, tuberculosis, and the HIV virus. Generally, the polysaccharides in the Shiitake mushroom are credited with boosting a person’s immune system and hence keeping disease at bay. According to mushroom researcher Jeff Chilton:

“These compounds have been the primary focus of research due to their ability to inhibit tumors in laboratory test animals. Mushroom polysaccharides act by enhancing host defenses rather than directly killing tumor cells. For this reason they are called host defense potentiators (HDP).”

www.cancer.org Overview

Studies in animals have found antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, and virus-inhibiting effects in compounds in shiitake mushrooms. However, clinical studies are needed to determine whether these properties can help people with cancer and other diseases. It is reasonable to include shiitake mushrooms as part of a balanced diet.

How is it promoted for use?

Shiitake mushrooms are promoted to fight the development and progression of cancer and AIDS by boosting the body’s immune system. These mushrooms are also said to help prevent heart disease by lowering cholesterol levels and to help treat infections such as hepatitis by producing interferon, a group of natural proteins that stops viruses from multiplying. Promoters claim that eating both the cap and stem of the mushroom may be helpful, but they do not say how much must be eaten to have an effect. They say the strength and effects of the mushroom depend on how it is prepared and consumed.

Promoters claim that shiitake mushrooms contain several compounds with health benefits. A compound called lentinan is believed to stop or slow tumor growth. Another component, activated hexose-containing compound (also known as 1,3-beta glucan), is also said to reduce tumor activity and lessen the side effects of cancer treatment. The mushrooms also contain the compound eritadenine, which is thought to lower cholesterol by blocking the way cholesterol is absorbed into the bloodstream. These claims are currently being studied. What is the evidence?

Animal studies have shown some positive results regarding the antitumor, cholesterol-lowering, and virus-inhibiting effects of several active compounds in shiitake mushrooms.

There have been some studies in humans. At least one randomized clinical trial of lentinan has shown it to prolong life of patients with advanced and recurrent stomach and colorectal cancer who were also given chemotherapy. Lentinan is a beta glucan (sometimes called beta glycan) that is found in several mushrooms, yeasts, and other foods. Beta glucan is a polysaccharide, a large and complex molecule made up of smaller sugar molecules. The beta glucan polysaccharide is believed to stimulate the immune system and activate certain cells and proteins that attack cancer, including macrophages, T-cells, and natural killer cells. In laboratory studies, beta glucan appears to slow the growth of cancer in some cell cultures.

Several potential cancer-fighting substances have been found in shiitake mushrooms, and purified forms of these compounds are being studied as treatment for stomach and colorectal cancer. It is not known whether any of these results will apply to the mushrooms bought in supermarkets or the extracts that are sold as supplements. One nonrandomized study published in 2002 looked at use of shiitake mushroom extract by men with prostate cancer but did not find any positive effect. Sixty-two men took the extract 3 times a day. After 6 months, they did not have any significant decrease in their level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein in the body that typically increases as prostate cancer grows, and nearly a quarter of them had increases in their PSA level. More human clinical trials are under way to understand which, if any, compounds in shiitake mushrooms may be effective for which types of cancers.

Mushrooms, Shiitake, cooked

(Note: “—” indicates data unavailable)

0.50 cup (72.50 q)

GI: not available

BASIC MACRONUTRIENTS AND CALORIES

nutrient

amount

DRI/DV

(%)

Protein

1.13 q

2.26

Carbohydrates

10.43 g

3.48

Fat – total

0.16 g

0.25

Dietary Fiber

1.52 g

6.08

Calories

40.6

2.26

MACRONUTRIENT AND CALORIE DETAIL

nutrient

amount

DRI/DV

(%)

Carbohydrate:

Starch

– g

Total Sugars

2.78 g

Monosaccharides

0.00 g

Fructose

0.00 g

Glucose

0.00 g

Galactose

0.00 g

Disaccharides

0.00 g

Lactose

0.00 g

Maltose

0.00 g

Sucrose

0.00 g

Soluble Fiber

– g

Insoluble Fiber

– g

Other Carbohydrates

6.13 g

Fat:

Monounsaturated Fat

0.05 q

Polyunsaturated Fat

0.02 q

In-depth nutrient Analysis:

Saturated Fat

0.04 g

Trans Fat

0.00 g

Calories from Fat

1.44

Calories from Saturated Fat

0.33

Calories from Trans Fat

0

Cholesterol

0.00 mg

Water

60.52 g

MICRONUTRIENTS

nutrient

amount

DRI/DV

(%)

Vitamins

Water-Soluble Vitamins

B-Complex Vitamins

Vitamin Bl

0.03 mg

2

Vitamin B2

0.12 mg

7.06

Vitamin B3

1.09 mg

Vitamin B3 (Niacin

Equivalents)

1.14 mg

Vitamin B6

0.12 mg

6

Vitamin B12

0.00 meg

0

Biotin

- meg

Choline

26.68 mg

6.28

Folate

15.22 meg

3.81

Folate (DFE)

15.22 meg

Folate (food)

15.22 meg

Pantothenic Acid

2.61 mg

26.1

Vitamin C

0.22 mg

0.37

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin A (Retinoids and Carotenoids)

Vitamin A International

Units (IU)

0.00 IU

0

Vitamin A meg Retinol Activity Equivalents (RAE)

0.00 meg (RAE)

Vitamin A meg Retinol

Equivalents (RE)

0.00 meg (RE)

Retinol meg Retinol

Equivalents (RE)

0.00 meg (RE)

Carotenoid meg Retinol

Equivalents (RE)

0.00 meg (RE)

0

Alpha-Carotene

0.00 meg

Beta-Carotene

0.00 meg

Beta-Carotene Equivalents

0.00 meg

Cryptoxanthin

0.00 meg

Lutein and Zeaxanthin

0.00 meg

Lycopene

0.00 meg

Vitamin D

Vitamin D International

Units (IU)

20.30 IU

5.08

Vitamin D meg

0.51 meg

Vitamin E

Vitamin E mg Alpha-Tocopherol Equivalents (ATE)

0.00 mg (ATE)

0

Vitamin E International

Units (IU)

0.00 IU

Vitamin E mg

0.00 mg

Vitamin K

0.00 meg

0

Minerals

nutrient

amount

DRI/DV

(%)

Boron

— meg

Calcium

2.17 mg

0.22

Chloride

– mg

Chromium

- meg

Copper

0.65 mg

32.5

Fluoride

– mg

Iodine

- meg

Iron

0.32 mg

1.78

Magnesium

10.15 mg

2.54

Manganese

0.15 mg

7.5

Molybdenum

- meg

Phosphorus

21.02 mg

2.1

Potassium

84.82 mg

2.42

Selenium

17.98 meg

25.69

Sodium

2.90 mg

0.12

Zinc

0.96 mg

6.4

INDIVIDUAL FATTY ACIDS

nutrient

amount

DRI/DV

(%)

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

0.00 g

0

Omega-6 Fatty Acids

0.02 g

Monounsaturated Fats

14:1 Myristoleic

0.00 g

15:1 Pentadecenoic

0.00 g

16:1 Palmitol

0.01 g

17:1 Heptadecenoic

0.00 g

18:1 Oleic

0.02 g

20:1 Eicosenoic

0.00 g

22:1 Erucic

0.01 g

24:1 Nervonic

0.00 g

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

18:2 Linoleic

0.02 g

18:2 Conjugated Linoleic (CLA)

– g

18:3 Linolenic

0.00 g

18:4 Stearidonic

0.00 g

20:3 Eicosatrienoic

0.00 g

20:4 Arachidonic

0.00 g

20:5 Eicosapentaenoic (EPA)

0.00 g

22:5 Docosapentaenoic (DPA)

0.00 g

22:6 Docosahexaenoic (DHA)

0.00 g

Saturated Fatty Acids

4:0 Butyric

– g

6:0 Caproic

– g

8:0 Caprylic

– g

10:0 Capric

0.00 g

12:0 Laurie

0.00 g

14:0 Myristic

0.00 g

15:0 Pentadecanoic

– g

16:0 Palmitic

0.02 q

17:0 Margaric

– g

18:0 Stearic

0.01 q

20:0 Arachidic

– g

22:0 Behenate

g

24:0 Lignoceric

– g

INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS

nutrient

amount

DRI/DV

(%)

Alanine

0.06 g

Arginine

0.06 g

Aspartic Acid

0.08 g

Cystine

0.02 g

4.88

Glutamic Acid

0.26 g

Glycine

0.04 g

Histidine

0.02 g

1.55

Isoleucine

0.04 g

3.48

Leucine

0.07 g

2.77

Lysine

0.03 q

1.28

Methionine

0.02 q

2.7

Phenylalanine

0.05 q

4.2

Proline

0.04 g

Serine

0.05 g

Threonine

0.05 q

4.03

Tryptophan

0.00 q

0

Tyrosine

0.03 q

3.09

Valine

0.05 q

3.4

OTHER COMPONENTS

nutrient

amount

DRI/DV

(%)

Ash

0.25 q

Organic Acids (Total)

– g

Acetic Acid

– g

Citric Acid

– g

Lactic Acid

– g

Malic Acid

– g

Taurine

– g

Sugar Alcohols (Total)

– g

Glycerol

– g

Inositol

– g

Mannitol

– g

Sorbitol

– g

Xylitol

– g

Artificial Sweeteners (Total)

– mg

Aspartame

– mg

Saccharin

– mg

Alcohol

0.00 g

Caffeine

0.00 mg



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